Nail Disorders and Diseases

Treatment of Common Nail Disorders and Diseases

by admin

When the feet are harmed or mistreated, all or a portion of the nail plate might be damaged. Improper nail trimming, minor injuries, or recurrent stress are prevalent causes of nail disorders. Some nail diseases are also inherited. A regular cutting (following the contour) can help preserve the toenails pink, as well-fitted, low to moderately heeled shoes can.

1. Ingrown Nail

Painful ingrown nails may be con­gen­i­tal, caused by an excess cur­va­ture of the nail or a variation between the breadth of the nail plate and the nail bed. Toe injuries that affect the shape of the nail can also result in an ingrown toenail. Toe defor­mi­ties (including a bunion, which causes the big toe to tilt toward the middle toe), high-heeled or nar­row, point­ed shoes can impose pres­sure between both the nail and delicate tis­sues, even pushing the nail to develop into the skin.

Ingrown Nail Symptoms

The toe is extremely painful due to redness, edema, and infection. Other toe dis­or­ders, including excessive sur­round­ing tis­sue or an out­growth of bone under the nail, might accompany ingrown nails.

Treatments for the Ingrown Nail

Surgery is frequently required to relieve discomfort and remove the troublesome nail. Only a part of the nail is allowed to be removed. If the entire nail is damaged or has a significant nail deformity, the nail plate and framework (the cells that develop the pin) may be removed.

2. Fungal Infections

You may find fungi of various kinds all over the place. The dark, wet environment generated by shoes and stockings makes the feet vulnerable to fungal infection. Most fungi are innocuous until they enter the body through the skin.

A fungus can enter the body through tiny incisions or, after an accident, frequent irritation to the toes causes the nail to break from the bed. Fungal infections of the nail plate and matrix are prevalent.

Fungal Infection Symptoms

The fungus can cause the nail to thicken and become yellow or brown. As the fungus develops, foul-smelling, damp detritus is visible. Due to pressure from a thickened nail or dirt buildup, the toe may become sore.

Treatments for Fungal Infections

When you detect the infection, you must immediately treat it.  Debris accumulating beneath the nail plate can result in an ingrown nail or a more serious bacterial infection extending beyond the foot. To alleviate discomfort caused by a thicker, infected nail, the surgeon may file the nail plate down with a surgical burr. On the other hand, filing will not stop the illness from spreading.

You may administer oral and topical antifungal medicines when:

  • There is a minor infection on the nail 
  • Several nails are damaged 
  • It is preferable to keep the nail

Medication may or may not be effective in eliminating the fungus. The fungus frequently returns when you stop the medication. Your podiatric foot and ankle surgeon will closely monitor the outcomes of oral medications and will discuss any potential adverse effects. While topical ointments do generally not eradicate the fungus, they may be beneficial when applied directly to the nail bed after removing the nail plate. In certain circumstances, removing the nail plate permanently is the only way to eliminate the infection (see “Surgical Treatments for Nail Disorders”).

3. Surgical Treatments for Nail Disorders

The doctor may suggest surgery to remove all or a section of the nail if the issue is severe or chronic. Most procedures are conducted in the podiatric foot and ankle surgeon’s office under local anaesthetic and take less than an hour. Because laser surgery necessitates specialized equipment, it may be conducted in a hospital. Though these are the most popular treatments for nail issues, others may be utilized. The podiatric foot and ankle surgeon will assess which treatment is most likely to be effective in each situation.

Partial Nail Removal

In certain circumstances, only the section of the nail that is developing into the skin is eliminated. If both nail edges are ingrown, you can remove them simultaneously. After removing the afflicted area of the nail (one eighth to the one-quarter inch), the nail bed and any swollen tissue next to the nail plate are removed. After that, the nail root and matrix are eliminated using phenol, surgical removal, or laser heat. Finally, it may modify the skin around the nail.

Permanent Nail Removal

Removing the whole nail plate is a frequent treatment for fungal infections and ingrown nails. The nail plate is removed, and the nail matrix is destroyed using one of three procedures during this procedure:

  • Phenol – Phenol is an acidic substance exclusively administered to the nail matrix. It kills the nail’s growing cells.
  • Surgical removal – entails removing the nail matrix and bed. Stitches are only required on rare occasions.
  • Laser – a type of burning in which laser heat is directed at matrix cells.


Nail disorder may come in many forms, and the ones discussed above are only a few of the indicators and sorts of disorders that a person may encounter.

People should see a doctor for diagnosis and treatment if they have a nail irregularity.

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